Cancer is the leading cause of mortality in economically developed countries and given its extreme complexity the major threat of human in the future. Primary prevention represents a great goal of biomedical science to reduce morbidity and mortality from malignant disease. Risk-reducing surgery is safe and effective to save the lives of individuals at risk for the development of hereditary cancer syndromes including breast-ovarian, colorectal, and gastric cancer. However, these syndromes are rare and cancer risk prediction is ~75% reflecting a 25% of mutation carriers who undergoing unnecessary prophylactic surgery and experience substantial diverse effects.
Here, it is discussed the advantages and limitations of prophylactic surgery in individuals selected on the basis of family history and genetic testing ( BRCA1/2, mismatch-repair genes , CDH1 ). Moreover, it is described the opportunities and challenges of genome-wide association studies to identify persons at high risk of cancer expanding therefore the indications of preventive surgery in the future.
(Citation: Gastric & Breast Cancer 2011; 10(2): 116-122)
This article is 7 pages long, and includes 1 table